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Knee Anatomy

The knee is the largest joint in the body and having healthy knees is required to perform most everyday activities.

The knee is made up of the lower end of the thighbone (femur), the upper end of the shinbone (tibia), and the kneecap (patella). The meeting points of these three bones are covered with articular cartilage, a smooth substance that protects the bones and enables them to move easily.

Normally, all of these components work in harmony. But disease or injury can disrupt this harmony, resulting in pain, muscle weakness, and reduced function.

Knee related services offered by the IOG

  • Arthritis
  • Partial knee replacement
  • Total knee replacement
  • Revision total knee replacement
  • High tibial osteotomy
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury
  • Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury
  • Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) injury
  • ACL reconstruction
  • Patellar instability / dislocation
  • Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction
  • Tibial tuberosity transfer
  • Meniscal injury
  • Meniscal trimming (partial meniscectomy)
  • Meniscal repair
  • Cartilage injury
  • Microfracture
  • Cartilage repair
  • Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction with hamstring tendon short graft
  • Arthroscopic surgery
  • Cartilage repair
  • Loose body removal
  • Meniscal repair or excision
  • Microfracture drilling procedure for isolated chondral defects
  • High tibial osteotomy
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction
  • High tibial osteotomy
  • Total knee replacement
  • Revision knee surgery
  • Osteoarthritis of the knee
  • Instability of the knee
  • Instability of the patellofemoral joint
  • Fractures around the knee and patella
  • Ligament injuries of the knee including the ACL
  • Meniscal injuries of the knee
  • Bone and cartilage lesions of the knee
  • Tendon ruptures around the knee
  • Knee stiffness and pain
Knee Joint